Buffering Techniques for Delivery of Compressed Video in Video on Demand Systems

Buffering Techniques for Delivery of Compressed Video in Video on Demand Systems
Author: Wu-Chi Feng
Release: 2007-08-26
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
Pages: 133
ISBN: 9780585314037
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Many emerging technologies such as video conferencing, video-on-demand, and digital libraries require the efficient delivery of compressed video streams. For applications that require the delivery of compressed stored multimedia streams, the a priori knowledge available about these compressed streams can aid in the allocation of server and network resources. By using a client-side buffer, the resource requirements from the server and network can be minimized. Buffering Techniques for Delivery of Compressed Video in Video-on-Demand Systems presents a comprehensive description of buffering techniques for the delivery of compressed, prerecorded multimedia data. While these techniques can be applied to any compressed data streams, this book focusses primarily on the delivery of video streams because of the large resource requirements that they can consume. The book first describes buffering techniques for the continuous playback of stored video sources. In particular, several bandwidth smoothing (or buffering) algorithms that are provably optimal under certain conditions are presented. To provide a well-rounded discussion, the book then describes extensions that aid in the ability to provide interactive delivery of video across networks. Specifically, reservation techniques that take into account interactive functions such as fast-forward and rewind are described. In addition, extensions to the bandwidth smoothing algorithms presented in the first few chapters are described. These algorithms are designed with interactive, continuous playback of stored video in mind and are also provably optimal under certain constraints. Buffering Techniques for Delivery of Compressed Video in Video-on-Demand Systems serves as an excellent resource for multimedia systems, networking and video-on-demand designers, and may be used as a text for advanced courses on the topic.

Nutritional Buffering Strategies to Improve Exercise Capacity and Performance

Nutritional Buffering Strategies to Improve Exercise Capacity and Performance
Author: Bryan Saunders,Lars R. McNaughton,Jason Siegler
Release: 2021-05-18
Editor: Frontiers Media SA
Pages: 82
ISBN: 9782889667789
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Buffering

Buffering
Author: Hannah Hart
Release: 2016-10-18
Editor: HarperCollins
Pages: 272
ISBN: 9780062457530
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER With a New Afterword by the Author "By turns hilarious and heartbreaking, Hannah Hart’s new book is a roaring, beautiful, and profoundly human account of an extraordinary life."—John Green "Hannah shares her truth with an honesty that is inspiring—one that makes me believe her when she says that it’s going to get better or that laughter is just around the corner or that you aren’t alone."—Jenny Lawson, #1 New York Timesbestselling author of Let's Pretend This Never Happenedand Furiously Happy The wildly popular YouTube personality, star of Food Network's I Hart Food, and author of the New York Times bestseller My Drunk Kitchen is back! This time, she’s stirring up memories and tales from her past. By combing through the journals that Hannah has kept for much of her life, this collection of narrative essays deliver a fuller picture of her life, her experiences, and the things she’s figured out about family, faith, love, sexuality, self-worth, friendship and fame. Revealing what makes Hannah tick, this sometimes cringe-worthy, poignant collection of stories is sure to deliver plenty of Hannah’s wit and wisdom, and hopefully encourage you to try your hand at her patented brand of reckless optimism. Personal note: Hello, my darlings! I am incredibly pleased to present BUFFERING: Unshared Tales of a Life Fully Loaded! As a big fan of memoirs, I wanted to try my hand at writing about the events of my life that deserve a little more consideration than can be accomplished in 140-characters or a 6-minute vlog. Now on the cusp of turning 30, I'm ready to expose some parts of my life that I haven't shared before. Before, it was all about privacy, process and time. And now the time has come! I’m ready to put myself out there, for you. I'm a little nervous about all these vulnerable words going into the world, these tales about my love life, the wrestling I’ve done with faith, how I feel about sex and my family and myself. I’ve had a lot of trials, a lot of errors, but also a lot of passion. Here’s the thing--I've always found comfort in the stories shared by others, so I hope my stories, now that I feel ready to tell them, will bring you some comfort too. And when you read this book please remember: Buffering is just the time it takes to process. Enjoy! Love, Hannah

Titration Curves and Buffering Capacities of Hawaiian Soils

Titration Curves and Buffering Capacities of Hawaiian Soils
Author: Yoshito Matsusaka
Release: 1950
Editor: Unknown
Pages: 36
ISBN: UIUC:30112019499265
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Contemporary Leadership Behavior

Contemporary Leadership Behavior
Author: Eleanor C. Hein,M. Jean Nicholson
Release: 1990
Editor: Scott Foresman & Company
Pages: 500
ISBN: UOM:39015021815611
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Acid Mine Drainage Rock Drainage and Acid Sulfate Soils

Acid Mine Drainage  Rock Drainage  and Acid Sulfate Soils
Author: James A. Jacobs,Jay H. Lehr,Stephen M. Testa
Release: 2014-04-28
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
Pages: 502
ISBN: 9780470487860
Language: en
Available for:

DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Provides the tools needed to analyze and solve acid drainage problems Featuring contributions from leading experts in science and engineering, this book explores the complex biogeochemistry of acid mine drainage, rock drainage, and acid sulfate soils. It describes how to predict, prevent, and remediate the environmental impact of acid drainage and the oxidation of sulfides, offering the latest sampling and analytical methods. Moreover, readers will discover new approaches for recovering valuable resources from acid mine drainage, including bioleaching. Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage, and Acid Sulfate Soils reviews the most current findings in the field, offering new insights into the underlying causes as well as new tools to minimize the harm of acid drainage: Part I: Causes of Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage and Sulfate Soils focuses on the biogeochemistry of acid drainage in different environments. Part II: Assessment of Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage and Sulfate Soils covers stream characterization, aquatic and biological sampling, evaluation of aquatic resources, and some unusual aspects of sulfide oxidation. Part III: Prediction and Prevention of Acid Drainage discusses acid-base accounting, kinetic testing, block modeling, petrology, and mineralogy studies. It also explains relevant policy and regulations. Part IV: Remediation of Acid Drainage, Rock Drainage and Sulfate Soils examines both passive and active cleanup methods to remediate acid drainage. Case studies from a variety of geologic settings highlight various approaches to analyzing and solving acid drainage problems. Replete with helpful appendices and an extensive list of web resources, Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage, and Acid Sulfate Soils is recommended for mining engineers and scientists, regulatory officials, environmental scientists, land developers, and students.

Geochemical and Biogeochemical Reaction Modeling

Geochemical and Biogeochemical Reaction Modeling
Author: Craig M. Bethke
Release: 2007-12-06
Editor: Cambridge University Press
Pages: 329
ISBN: 9781139468329
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

This book provides a comprehensive overview of reaction processes in the Earth's crust and on its surface, both in the laboratory and in the field. A clear exposition of the underlying equations and calculation techniques is balanced by a large number of fully worked examples. The book uses The Geochemist's Workbench® modeling software, developed by the author and already installed at over 1000 universities and research facilities worldwide. Since publication of the first edition, the field of reaction modeling has continued to grow and find increasingly broad application. In particular, the description of microbial activity, surface chemistry, and redox chemistry within reaction models has become broader and more rigorous. These areas are covered in detail in this new edition, which was originally published in 2007. This text is written for graduate students and academic researchers in the fields of geochemistry, environmental engineering, contaminant hydrology, geomicrobiology, and numerical modeling.

Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology

Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology
Author: Anonim
Release: 1975
Editor: Unknown
Pages: 329
ISBN: UOM:39015000757149
Language: en
Available for:

DESCRIPTION BOOK:

IP over WDM

IP over WDM
Author: Sudhir Dixit
Release: 2004-07-26
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
Pages: 584
ISBN: 9780471478355
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

The key technology to delivering maximum bandwidth overnetworks is Dense Wave-length Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Describes in detail how DWDM works and how to implement a rangeof transmission protocols Covers device considerations, the pros and cons of variousnetwork layer protocols, and quality of service (QoS) issues The authors are leading experts in this field and providereal-world implementation examples First book to describe the interplay between the physical andIP (Internet Protocol) layers in optical networks

Riparian Forest Buffers

Riparian Forest Buffers
Author: David J. Welsch
Release: 1991
Editor: Unknown
Pages: 30
ISBN: MINN:31951D006218860
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Discusses how streamside forests are crucial to the protection and enhancement of the water resources of the Eastern United States.

Specialised Pharmaceutical Formulation

Specialised Pharmaceutical Formulation
Author: Geoffrey D Tovey
Release: 2022-05-04
Editor: Royal Society of Chemistry
Pages: 338
ISBN: 9781839165610
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Formulation is a key step in the drug design process, where the active drug is combined with other substances that maximise the therapeutic potential, safety, and stability of the final medicinal product. Regulatory and quality demands, in addition to advances in processing technologies, result in growing challenges as well as possibilities for the field. Following on from Pharmaceutical Formulation, which covered traditional dosage forms such as tablets and capsules, this volume expands upon those formulations to cover a more diverse range of less common dosage forms. Novel routes of administration are covered from inhalational, dermal and transdermal formulations to ocular, oral suspensions, vaccines and nanoparticle drug delivery. The methods through which these formulations are processed and manufactured is also covered, providing essential knowledge to ensure quality, efficiency, and acceptable costing. Specialised Pharmaceutical Formulation is an essential, up to date resource for students and researchers working in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry and will equip readers with the ability to effectively and reliably produce products which can be approved, manufactured and made available to administer to patients.

Membrane Potential Imaging in the Nervous System and Heart

Membrane Potential Imaging in the Nervous System and Heart
Author: Marco Canepari,Dejan Zecevic,Olivier Bernus
Release: 2015-08-03
Editor: Springer
Pages: 516
ISBN: 9783319176413
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

This volume discusses membrane potential imaging in the nervous system and in the heart and modern optical recording technology. Additionally, it covers organic and genetically-encoded voltage-sensitive dyes; membrane potential imaging from individual neurons, brain slices, and brains in vivo; optical imaging of cardiac tissue and arrhythmias; bio-photonics modelling. This is an expanded and fully-updated second edition, reflecting all the recent advances in this field. Twenty chapters, all authored by leading names in the field, are cohesively structured into four sections. The opening section focuses on the history and principles of membrane potential imaging and lends context to the following sections, which examine applications in single neurons, networks, large neuronal populations and the heart. Topics discussed include population membrane potential signals in development of the vertebrate nervous system, use of membrane potential imaging from dendrites and axons, and depth-resolved optical imaging of cardiac activation and repolarization. The final section discusses the potential – and limitations – for new developments in the field, including new technology such as non-linear optics, advanced microscope designs and genetically encoded voltage sensors. Membrane Potential Imaging in the Nervous System and Heart is ideal for neurologists, electro physiologists, cardiologists and those who are interested in the applications and the future of membrane potential imaging.

Handbook of School Violence and School Safety

Handbook of School Violence and School Safety
Author: Shane Jimerson,Amanda Nickerson,Matthew J. Mayer,Michael J. Furlong
Release: 2012-03-12
Editor: Routledge
Pages: 672
ISBN: 9781136898273
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

The Handbook of School Violence and School Safety: International Research and Practice has become the premier resource for educational and mental health professionals and policymakers seeking to implement effective prevention and intervention programs that reduce school violence and promote safe and effective schools. It covers the full range of school violence and safety topics from harassment and bullying to promoting safe, secure, and peaceful schools. It also examines existing school safety programs and includes the multi-disciplinary research and theories that guide them. Examinations of current issues and projections of future research and practice are embedded within each chapter. This volume maps the boundaries of this rapidly growing and multidisciplinary field of study. Key features include... Comprehensive Coverage – The chapters are divided into three parts: Foundations; Assessment and Measurement; Prevention and Intervention Programs. Together they provide a comprehensive review of what is known about the types, causes, and effects of school violence and the most effective intervention programs that have been developed to prevent violence and promote safe and thriving school climates. Evidence-based Practice – Avoiding a one-size-fits-all approach to prevention and intervention, the focus throughout is on the application of evidence-based practice to address factors most commonly associated with school violence and safety. Implications for Practice – Each chapter bridges the research-to-practice gap, with a section delineating implications for practice of the foregoing research. Chapter Structure – To ensure continuity and coherence across the book, each chapter begins with a brief abstract and ends with a table showing the implications for practice. International Focus – Acknowledging the fact that school violence and safety is a global concern, this edition has increased its focus on insights learned from cross-national research and practice outside the USA. Expertise – The editors and authors are experienced researchers, teachers, practitioners, and leaders in the school violence field, their expertise includes their breadth and depth of knowledge and experience, bridging research, policy, and practice and representing a variety of international organizations studying school violence around the world.

Costanzo Physiology E Book

Costanzo Physiology E Book
Author: Linda S. Costanzo
Release: 2021-09-28
Editor: Elsevier Health Sciences
Pages: 528
ISBN: 9780323793360
Language: en
Available for:

DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Through six highly regarded editions, students and instructors alike have come to appreciate Dr. Linda Costanzo’s clear, helpful writing style, logical organization, and easy-to-follow presentation of a challenging and complex topic in medical education. Costanzo Physiology, 7th Edition, retains the step-by-step, to-the-point approach that makes this text ideal for coursework and USMLE preparation. Complex concepts are presented in a simple, easy-to-digest manner, and are accompanied by well-designed figures and tables that provide handy visuals for procedures or physiologic equations. Fully updated throughout, this edition remains the students’ choice for concise, clear instruction and a strong foundation in human physiology. Offers a comprehensive and consistent overview of core physiologic concepts at the organ system and cellular levels, making complex principles easy to understand. Presents information in a short, simple, and focused manner – the perfect presentation for success in coursework and on exams. Provides step-by-step explanations and easy-to-follow diagrams clearly depicting physiologic principles. Contains new coverage of SARS CoV-2 physiology, renal handling of uric acid, delta/delta analysis is acid-base physiology, endolymph physiology, respiratory distress syndrome, compensatory bronchiolar constriction, and more. Includes high-yield online features such as student FAQs with thorough explanations, animations, and video tutorials from Dr. Costanzo. Integrates equations and sample problems throughout the text. Features chapter summaries for quick overviews of important points, boxed Clinical Physiology Cases for a more thorough understanding of application, and end-of-chapter questions to reinforce understanding and retention. Evolve Instructor site with an image bank is available to instructors through their Elsevier sales rep or via request at https://evolve.elsevier.com.

Introduction to Network Simulator NS2

Introduction to Network Simulator NS2
Author: Teerawat Issariyakul,Ekram Hossain
Release: 2008-12-10
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
Pages: 400
ISBN: 9780387717609
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

An Introduction to Network Simulator NS2 is a beginners’ guide for network simulator NS2, an open-source discrete event simulator designed mainly for networking research. NS2 has been widely accepted as a reliable simulation tool for computer communication networks both in academia and industry. This book will present two fundamental NS2 concepts:i) how objects (e.g., nodes, links, queues, etc.) are assembled to create a network and ii) how a packet flows from one object to another. Based on these concepts, this book will demonstrate through examples how new modules can be incorporated into NS2. The book will: -Give an overview on simulation and communication networks. -Provide general information (e.g., installation, key features, etc.) about NS2. -Demonstrate how to set up a simple network simulation scenario using Tcl scripting lanuage. -Explain how C++ and OTcl (Object oriented Tcl) are linked, and constitute NS2. -Show how Ns2 interprets a Tcl Script and executes it. -Suggest post simulation processing approaches and identify their pros and cons. -Present a number of NS2 extension examples. -Discuss how to incorporate MATLAB into NS2.

z OS V1 13 DFSMS Technical Update

z OS V1 13 DFSMS Technical Update
Author: Mike Ebbers,Mary Lovelace,Andre Coelho,Anthony Fletcher,Gert Laumann,Alvaro Salla,Norbert Schlumberger,IBM Redbooks
Release: 2012-09-23
Editor: IBM Redbooks
Pages: 372
ISBN: 9780738436951
Language: en
Available for:

DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Each release of IBM® Data Facility Storage Management Subsystem (DFSMS) builds on the previous version. The latest release, IBM z/OS® V1.13 DFSMS, provides enhancements in these areas for the z/OS platform in a system-managed storage environment: Storage management Data access Device support Program management Distributed data access This IBM Redbooks® publication provides a summary of the functions and enhancements in z/OS V1.13 DFSMS. It provides information that you need to understand and evaluate the content of this DFSMS release, along with practical implementation hints and tips. This book also includes enhancements that are available by enabling PTFs that have been integrated into z/OS DFSMS V1.13. This book was written for storage professionals and system programmers who have experience with the components of DFSMS. It provides sufficient information so that you can start prioritizing the implementation of new functions and evaluating their applicability in your DFSMS environment.

Nanocomposites and Polymers with Analytical Methods

Nanocomposites and Polymers with Analytical Methods
Author: John Cuppoletti
Release: 2011-08-09
Editor: BoD – Books on Demand
Pages: 420
ISBN: 9789533073521
Language: en
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DESCRIPTION BOOK:

This book contains 16 chapters. In the first part, there are 8 chapters describing new materials and analytic methods. These materials include chapters on gold nanoparticles and Sol-Gel metal oxides, nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes, methods of evaluation by depth sensing, and other methods. The second part contains 3 chapters featuring new materials with unique properties including optical non-linearities, new materials based on pulp fibers, and the properties of nano-filled polymers. The last part contains 5 chapters with applications of new materials for medical devices, anodes for lithium batteries, electroceramics, phase change materials and matrix active nanoparticles.

Buffers for pH and Metal Ion Control

Buffers for pH and Metal Ion Control
Author: D. Perrin
Release: 2012-12-06
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
Pages: 176
ISBN: 9789400958746
Language: en
Available for:

DESCRIPTION BOOK:

This book is intended as a practical manual for chemists, biologists and others whose work requires the use of pH or metal-ion buffers. Much information on buffers is scattered throughout the literature and it has been our endeavour to select data and instructions likely to be helpful in the choice of suitable buffer substances and for the preparation of appropriate solutions. For details of pH measurement and the preparation of standard acid and alkali solutions the reader is referred to a companion volume, A. Albert and E. P. Serjeant's The Determination of Ionization Constants (1971). Although the aims of the book are essentially practical, it also deals in some detail with those theoretical aspects considered most helpful to an understanding of buffer applications. We have cast our net widely to include pH buffers for particular purposes and for measurements in non-aqueous and mixed solvent systems. In recent years there has been a significant expansion in the range of available buffers, particularly for biological studies, largely in conse quence of the development of many zwiUerionic buffers by Good et al. (1966). These are described in Chapter 3.

UNIX Programming

UNIX Programming
Author: Dr. Vineeta Khemchandani,Dr. Darpan Anand,Dr. K. K. Mishra,Dr. Sandeep Harit
Release: 2022-05-19
Editor: BPB Publications
Pages: 234
ISBN: 9789355510402
Language: en
Available for:

DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Functioning of UNIX operating system with shell programming KEY FEATURES ● Equipped with installation, administration, and best practices for UNIX system management. ● Provides a wide range of shell scripting and Unix-based solutions. ● UNIX foundations, Resource Management, Socket Programming, Shell Scripting, and the C Interface are all covered. DESCRIPTION This book is intended to be an instructional tool and study guide for those interested in learning about the principles of the UNIX operating system, process management, socket programming, and numerous shell scripting techniques. First, you will learn about the UNIX system architecture and programming environment, which provide an overview of all system resources and their management. Then, Unix file systems, Kernel data structures for performing file I/O, Basic File permissions and Library functions, and UNIX system calls are discussed. Process control, parallel execution, user data access, and signal management are just some of the topics covered in this book. Next, we'll go through the basics of network communication, such as system calls, data transmission over sockets, and I/O multiplexing models. Finally, the book discusses more advanced UNIX and C interface concepts such as library functions, command-line arguments, and environment variables. Throughout the book, you'll find plenty of solutions, exercises, and shell scripts to help you get the most out of your hands-on experience with the UNIX system. WHAT YOU WILL LEARN ● Investigate every aspect of the UNIX operating system. ● Understand how to use the shell and how to develop shell scripts. ● Acquaint yourself with all of UNIX's file and process components. ● Gain a working knowledge of file access and manipulation. ● Learn more about inter-process communication and its many methods. WHO THIS BOOK IS FOR The book appeals to UNIX professionals, students, master's degree applicants, and candidates for competitive exams who wish to understand UNIX principles thoroughly. However, it is written for beginners and may be read by anyone without prior understanding. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Fundamental Concepts of UNIX Operating System 2. File Management 3. Process Management 4. Inter-Process Communication 5. Socket Programming 6. Memory Management 7. UNIX Shell and Custom Environment 8. Shell Programming Using Bourne Shell

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB
Author: Ivan Kaminow,Tingye Li,Alan E. Willner
Release: 2010-07-28
Editor: Elsevier
Pages: 928
ISBN: 9780080569628
Language: en
Available for:

DESCRIPTION BOOK:

Optical Fiber Telecommunications V (A&B) is the fifth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the research and development of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition not only brings a fresh look to many essential topics but also focuses on network management and services. Using high bandwidth in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications is a central theme. This book is ideal for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and students, network operators, and the investment community. Volume (A) is devoted to components and subsystems, including: semiconductor lasers, modulators, photodetectors, integrated photonic circuits, photonic crystals, specialty fibers, polarization-mode dispersion, electronic signal processing, MEMS, nonlinear optical signal processing, and quantum information technologies. Volume (B) is devoted to systems and networks, including: advanced modulation formats, coherent systems, time-multiplexed systems, performance monitoring, reconfigurable add-drop multiplexers, Ethernet technologies, broadband access and services, metro networks, long-haul transmission, optical switching, microwave photonics, computer interconnections, and simulation tools. Biographical Sketches Ivan Kaminow retired from Bell Labs in 1996 after a 42-year career. He conducted seminal studies on electrooptic modulators and materials, Raman scattering in ferroelectrics, integrated optics, semiconductor lasers (DBR , ridge-waveguide InGaAsP and multi-frequency), birefringent optical fibers, and WDM networks. Later, he led research on WDM components (EDFAs, AWGs and fiber Fabry-Perot Filters), and on WDM local and wide area networks. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a recipient of the IEEE/OSA John Tyndall, OSA Charles Townes and IEEE/LEOS Quantum Electronics Awards. Since 2004, he has been Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Tingye Li retired from AT&T in 1998 after a 41-year career at Bell Labs and AT&T Labs. His seminal work on laser resonator modes is considered a classic. Since the late 1960s, He and his groups have conducted pioneering studies on lightwave technologies and systems. He led the work on amplified WDM transmission systems and championed their deployment for upgrading network capacity. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. He is a recipient of the IEEE David Sarnoff Award, IEEE/OSA John Tyndall Award, OSA Ives Medal/Quinn Endowment, AT&T Science and Technology Medal, and IEEE Photonics Award. Alan Willner has worked at AT&T Bell Labs and Bellcore, and he is Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Southern California. He received the NSF Presidential Faculty Fellows Award from the White House, Packard Foundation Fellowship, NSF National Young Investigator Award, Fulbright Foundation Senior Scholar, IEEE LEOS Distinguished Lecturer, and USC University-Wide Award for Excellence in Teaching. He is a Fellow of IEEE and OSA, and he has been President of the IEEE LEOS, Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE/OSA J. of Lightwave Technology, Editor-in-Chief of Optics Letters, Co-Chair of the OSA Science & Engineering Council, and General Co-Chair of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics.