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|Author||: Laurie Halse Anderson|
|Editor||: Scholastic UK|
Thoughtful teen fiction at its finest. Kate Malone: popular straight A student, long-distance runner, pillar of strength to her single-parent dad. She thinks she can she can handle anything. Until it all goes wrong. Kate's life is spiraling out of control - and Kate's about to find out how exhilarating that can be.
|Author||: Helena Coggan|
|Editor||: Candlewick Press|
A young girl's loyalties are tested when she must choose to keep her own secrets or protect the people she loves.--adapted from book jacket.
|Author||: Chandramouli Venkatesan|
A good job, hard work, IQ, EQ, good communication skills-these are all ingredients for a successful life. The presence of these elements alone, however, does not guarantee success. To convert them into long-term success, you need certain stimuli which precipitate or accelerate your growth. This robustly effective book identifies the various catalysts that you can cultivate and how you can leverage them to propel yourself in your work and life. Accessible, engaging and easy to follow, and written by someone who has experienced all this in real life and not in theory, Catalyst will arm you with the right tools to succeed at your work place and get the most out of every moment, every day.
|Author||: Jonah Berger|
|Editor||: Simon and Schuster|
Explores the subtle, secret influences that affect the decisions we make--from what we buy, to the careers we choose, to what we eat.
|Author||: S. S. E. H. Elnashaie|
|Editor||: CRC Press|
The discovery of chaos has considerably widened the scope of our knowledge regarding the dynamics of physical systems. Gas-solid catalytic reactors are important units in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries and in the field of environmental protection. The knowledge required to understand and analyse the bifurcation, dynamics and chaotic behaviour of these reactors is widespread among many disciplines including chemical reaction, engineering, chemistry, physics and pure and applied mathematics. This book is the first to consolidate the progress in understanding the complex dynamics of catalytic reactors. It covers the most important aspects of the problem, which includes the formulation of the dynamic models for these systems, the basic dynamic, bifurcation and chaotic characteristics of the different types and configurations of these units, the industrial relevance of these complex dynamic phenomena, as well as the mathematical tools necessary for the detailed analysis of these complex dynamics. This book is easy to read, and will therefore appeal to a wide spectrum of chemical engineering students and chemical engineers in academia and in industry, also students and researchers from other disciplines who are interested in the rich and fascinating complex dynamic characteristics of gas-solid catalytic reactors, will find it both interesting and useful.
|Author||: Andrzej Cybulski,Jacob A. Moulijn|
|Editor||: CRC Press|
Interest in structured catalysts is steadily increasing due to the already proven, as well as potential, advantages of these catalysts. Updating the comprehensive coverage of the first edition published in 1998 with the latest science and applications, Structured Catalysts and Reactors, Second Edition gives detailed information on all aspects of structured catalysts and reactors, including: materials, mass transfer, selectivity, activity, and stability; catalyst preparation, design, and characterization; process development; modeling and optimization; reactor design; and operation costs and considerations. The book first examines how monolithic catalysts are used to clean exhaust gas from gasoline engines, treat industrial off-gases, burn fuels in commercial settings, and synthesize chemicals in two- and three-phase processes. It discusses configurations, microstructure, physical properties, and manufacture of ceramic and metallic monoliths before directing its focus to arranged catalysts and structured packings in terms of mass transfer. The book then explores catalytically active membranes and filters, featuring metallic membranes, permeation mechanisms, preparation and modeling, commercial membranes, and the latest applications, such as zeolitic membranes. Finally, several chapters present techniques for incorporating catalytic species into the structured catalyst support and controlling catalyst nanoporosity. This book conveys the scientific as well as economic advantages of using these unconventional catalytic techniques. With over 1500 references, tables, drawings, and photographs, as well as in-depth discussions and a new approach to catalytic processes, Structured Catalysts and Reactors, Second Edition is an essential reference for anyone working with or studying catalysis.
|Author||: Marco Piumetti,Samir Bensaid|
|Editor||: Springer Nature|
This book offers an overview of the recent studies and advances in environmental catalysis by nanomaterials, considering both the fundamental and the technological aspects. It offers contributions in different areas of environmental catalysis, including the catalytic and photocatalytic abatement of environmentally hazardous effluents from stationary or mobile sources, the valorization of waste and the production of sustainable energy. In other words, this monograph provides an overview of modern environmental and energy related applications with a particular emphasis to nano-sized catalytic materials. Recent concepts, experimental data and advanced theories are reported in this book to give evidence of the environmental and sustainable applications that can be found in the highly interdisciplinary field of catalysis.
|Author||: Edward Furimsky|
|Editor||: Royal Society of Chemistry|
Carbon materials have, in recent years, been attracting attention as potential supports in heterogeneous catalysis. In 2006, the number of articles dealing with various types of catalysts supported on carbon approached 1000, however only a fraction of those were devoted to hydroprocessing catalysts, despite the fact that interest in carbons as supports for hydroprocessing catalysts began more than two decades ago. This unique book is a comprehensive summary of recent research in the field and covers all areas of carbons and carbon materials. The potential application of carbon supports, particularly those of carbon black (CB) and activated carbon (AC) in hydroprocessing catalysis are covered extensively in the book. Novel carbon materials such as carbon fibers and carbon nano tubes (CNT) are also covered, including the more recent developments in the use of fullerenes in hydroprocessing applications - an area with little published research. Although the primary focus of this book is on carbons and carbon supported catalysts, it also identifies the difference in the effect of carbon supports compared with the oxidic supports, particularly that of Y-AL2 O3. Although many books claim to have the same objective, this publication is unique as the difference in catalyst activity and stability was estimated using both model compounds and real feeds under variable conditions. The conditions applied during the preparation of carbon supported catalysts are also comprehensively covered and include various methods of pretreatment of carbon supports to enhance catalyst performance. The model compounds results consistently show higher hydrodesulfurization and hydrodeoxygenation activities of carbon supported catalysts than that of the ?-Al2O3 supported catalysts. Also, the deactivation of the former catalysts by coke deposition was much less evident. Importantly, in this book, most of the model compounds studies on hydrodesulfurization and hydrodeoxygenation were conducted in the absence of nitrogen compounds, as the poisoning effects of such compounds on hydroprocessing reactions are well known. Non-conventional metals (e.g., Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Re and Ir) supported on carbon supports are also studied in this book as catalysts for hydroprocessing of model feeds and real feeds. The book shows that these catalysts are much more active than conventional metals containing catalysts however the high cost of these metals prevents commercial utilization of these catalysts. Kinetics of hydroprocessing reactions, as well as kinetics of deactivation over carbon supported catalysts are also investigated under a wide range of experimental conditions and the ?-Al2O3 supported catalysts have been included for comparison. This book, unique in its field, indicates the future potential of carbon supported catalysts during hydroprocessing, particularly in deep hydrodesulfurization and hydrodemetallization.
|Author||: Sunil S Joshi,Vivek V. Ranade|
Industrial Catalytic Processes for Fine and Specialty Chemicals provides a comprehensive methodology and state-of-the art toolbox for industrial catalysis. The book begins by introducing the reader to the interesting, challenging, and important field of catalysis and catalytic processes. The fundamentals of catalysis and catalytic processes are fully covered before delving into the important industrial applications of catalysis and catalytic processes, with an emphasis on green and sustainable technologies. Several case studies illustrate new and sustainable ways of designing catalysts and catalytic processes. The intended audience of the book includes researchers in academia and industry, as well as chemical engineers, process development chemists, and technologists working in chemical industries and industrial research laboratories. Discusses the fundamentals of catalytic processes, catalyst preparation and characterization, and reaction engineering Outlines the homogeneous catalytic processes as they apply to specialty chemicals Introduces industrial catalysis and catalytic processes for fine chemicals Includes a number of case studies to demonstrate the various processes and methods for designing green catalysts
|Author||: Doan Pham Minh|
|Editor||: John Wiley & Sons|
Essential reference for researchers and experts in industry highlighting the rapidly growing field of hydroxyapatite-based catalysts and their application in various chemical processes. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is the main mineral component of human and animal bones. It is largely applied in the field of biomaterials due to its biocompatibility. Recently, hydroxyapatite-based materials have especially gained a lot of attention by researchers in catalysis, as they are versatile and have shown precious properties of a good catalyst and catalyst support such as excellent ion-exchange capacity, high porosity, very low water solubility, controlled basicity/acidity, and good thermal stability at high temperatures. Design and Applications of Hydroxyapatite-Based Catalysts gives a detailed overview of the synthesis, characterization, and use of hydroxyapatite-based materials in catalysis. It covers synthetic hydroxyapatites (from pure chemicals or waste), natural apatites and materials from eggshells and animal bones. The application of hydroxyapatite-based catalysts in selective oxidation, deoxygenation, selective hydrogenation, dehydrogenation reactions, organic synthesis, as well as reforming processes and production of energy carriers is reviewed. Moreover, electrocatalysis and photocatalysis using hydroxyapatite-based materials are discussed. Kinetic and mechanism studies of various chemical pro-cesses over hydroxyapatite-based catalysts are also presented. This is the first book solely dedicated to hydroxyapatite-based materials and their use in catalysis. Covers synthesis and characterization, surface and structure studies, kinetic and mechanism aspects, and various applications in heterogeneous catalysis, electrocatalysis, and photocatalysis. Aimed at further stimulating research in the field Design and Applications of Hydroxyapatite-Based Catalysts is an indispensable source-of-information for researchers in academia and industry working in catalysis.
|Author||: Robert B. Anderson|
|Editor||: Academic Press|
Experimental Methods in Catalytic Research, Volume I provides a useful account of procedures in various areas of catalytic research. This book describes the method and its fundamental principles, the apparatus used, the data obtained and their interpretation, and the account of the special problems related to catalytic research. Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the kinetic phenomena such as quantitative studies of reaction rate and factors influencing rate. This text then examines the general properties that are of major importance to catalysis since catalytic rates depend mainly on available active surface. Other chapters consider the detailed mechanism of any catalytic reaction, which include the electronic structure of the chemisorption bond. This book discusses as well several experimental methods developed to study surface reactions under highly idealized conditions. The final chapter deals with the phenomenon associated with the spin of an electron. This book is a valuable resource for chemical engineers.
|Author||: Wilson D. Shafer,Gary Jacobs|
Since the turn of the last century when the field of catalysis was born, iron and cobalt have been key players in numerous catalysis processes. These metals, due to their ability to activate CO and CH, haev a major economic impact worldwide. Several industrial processes and synthetic routes use these metals: biomass-to-liquids (BTL), coal-to-liquids (CTL), natural gas-to-liquids (GTL), water-gas-shift, alcohol synthesis, alcohol steam reforming, polymerization processes, cross-coupling reactions, and photocatalyst activated reactions. A vast number of materials are produced from these processes, including oil, lubricants, waxes, diesel and jet fuels, hydrogen (e.g., fuel cell applications), gasoline, rubbers, plastics, alcohols, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, feed-stock chemicals, and other alternative materials. However, given the true complexities of the variables involved in these processes, many key mechanistic issues are still not fully defined or understood. This Special Issue of Catalysis will be a collaborative effort to combine current catalysis research on these metals from experimental and theoretical perspectives on both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts. We welcome contributions from the catalysis community on catalyst characterization, kinetics, reaction mechanism, reactor development, theoretical modeling, and surface science.
|Author||: G. Poncelet,P.A. Jacobs,P. Grange|
Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis is one of the oldest and most cited series in the field. It offers a privileged view of the topic covering the theory, applications and engineering of all topics of catalysis, including Heterogeneous-Homogeneous, Biocatalysis and Catalysis for Polymerization. This volume provides an invaluable source of information for academics and industrialists as well as graduate students.
|Author||: Mark Crocker,Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez|
|Editor||: John Wiley & Sons|
A comprehensive reference to the use of innovative catalysts and processes to turn biomass into value-added chemicals Chemical Catalysts for Biomass Upgrading offers detailed descriptions of catalysts and catalytic processes employed in the synthesis of chemicals and fuels from the most abundant and important biomass types. The contributors?noted experts on the topic?focus on the application of catalysts to the pyrolysis of whole biomass and to the upgrading of bio-oils. The authors discuss catalytic approaches to the processing of biomass-derived oxygenates, as exemplified by sugars, via reactions such as reforming, hydrogenation, oxidation, and condensation reactions. Additionally, the book provides an overview of catalysts for lignin valorization via oxidative and reductive methods and considers the conversion of fats and oils to fuels and terminal olefins by means of esterification/transesterification, hydrodeoxygenation, and decarboxylation/decarbonylation processes. The authors also provide an overview of conversion processes based on terpenes and chitin, two emerging feedstocks with a rich chemistry, and summarize some of the emerging trends in the field. This important book: -Provides a comprehensive review of innovative catalysts, catalytic processes, and catalyst design -Offers a guide to one of the most promising ways to find useful alternatives for fossil fuel resources -Includes information on the most abundant and important types of biomass feedstocks -Examines fields such as catalytic cracking, pyrolysis, depolymerization, and many more Written for catalytic chemists, process engineers, environmental chemists, bioengineers, organic chemists, and polymer chemists, Chemical Catalysts for Biomass Upgrading presents deep insights on the most important aspects of biomass upgrading and their various types.
|Author||: S. Cenini,F. Ragaini|
|Editor||: Springer Science & Business Media|
About eight years ago, the catalytic carbonylation of organic nitro compounds was a research field developed enough to justify a rather long review on this subject. Now, we feel that the scientific results and new achievements in this field, very important even from an industrial point of view, require a book in order to be adequately presented. The competition between the catalytic carbonylation of organic nitro compounds and other chemical routes for the synthesis of a variety of organic compounds has not yet come to an end, but many progresses have been done in the former field. We also like to emphasize that this type of research does not only involve relevant industrial problems to be solved, but it opens a research field where the academic interests (mechanism of the reactions, isolation of the intermediates in the catalytic cycles, synthesis of model compounds and so on) can find a lot of opportunities.
|Author||: James Armond Stanfield|
|Author||: Ayusman Sen|
|Editor||: Springer Science & Business Media|
217 2. COPOLYMERIZATION OF PROPENE OR HIGHER I-ALKENES WITH 218 CARBON MONOXIDE 2. 1. Ligands and polymerization conditions 218 2. 2. Spiroketal formation 221 2. 3. Enantioselectivity 222 2. 4. Higher I-Alkenes 226 3. COPOLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE OR ITS DERIVATIVES WITH 226 CARBON MONOXIDE 4. COPOLYMERIZATION OF OTHER OLEANS WITH CARBON MONOXIDE 230 5. ASYMMETRIC TERPOLYMERIZATION OF MORE THAN Two KINDS OF 232 OLEFINS WITH CARBON MONOXIDE 6. POLYKETONE CONFORMATION 233 7. CONCLUSION 234 Chapter 8. Chain Propagation Mechanisms 237 Ayusman Sen 1. INTRODUCTION 237 2. PALLADIUM (II) BASED SYSTEMS 238 3. NICKEL (II) BASED SYSTEMS 256 4. RHODIUM (I) BASED SYSTEMS 257 5. CONCLUSION 261 Chapter 9. Theoretical Studies on Copolymerization of Polar Monomers 265 Peter Margl, Artur Michalak, and Tom Ziegler 1. INTRODUCTION 265 2. COPOLYMERIZATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE WITH ETHYLENE 267 2. 1. Experimental and calculated rates for the insertion processes for 267 copolymerization catalysed by Pd(II) systems. 2. 2. A more detailed look at the productive and unproductive cycles 270 in copolymerization catalysed by Pd(II) complexes. 2. 2. 1. The productive cycle 270 2. 2. 2. C2H4 misinsertion into an ethylene terminated polyketone 275 chain 2. 3. Experimental and calculated rates for the insertion processes for 277 alternating copolymerization catalyzed by Ni(II) systems 3. COPOLYMERIZATION OF OLEFINS WITH POLAR MONOMERS OTHER 280 THAN CO 3. 1. Preferred binding mode of oxygen containing monomers 282 3. 2. Preferred binding mode of nitrogen containing monomers 285 3. 3.
|Author||: S. J. Kincaid|
Earth is in the middle of WWIII, battling to determine which governments and corporations will control the resources of the solar system. Teen Tom Raines grew up with nothing, some days without even a roof over his head. Then his exceptional gaming s
|Author||: Gerald Leonard Vogler|