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|Author||: Scott D. Seligman|
A mesmerizing true story of money, murder, gambling, prostitution, and opium in a "wild ramble around Chinatown in its darkest days." (The New Yorker) Nothing had worked. Not threats or negotiations, not shutting down the betting parlors or opium dens, not house-to-house searches or throwing Chinese offenders into prison. Not even executing them. The New York DA was running out of ideas and more people were dying every day as the weapons of choice evolved from hatchets and meat cleavers to pistols, automatic weapons, and even bombs. Welcome to New York City’s Chinatown in 1925. The Chinese in turn-of-the-last-century New York were mostly immigrant peasants and shopkeepers who worked as laundrymen, cigar makers, and domestics. They gravitated to lower Manhattan and lived as Chinese an existence as possible, their few diversions—gambling, opium, and prostitution—available but, sadly, illegal. It didn’t take long before one resourceful merchant saw a golden opportunity to feather his nest by positioning himself squarely between the vice dens and the police charged with shutting them down. Tong Wars is historical true crime set against the perfect landscape: Tammany-era New York City. Representatives of rival tongs (secret societies) corner the various markets of sin using admirably creative strategies. The city government was already corrupt from top to bottom, so once one tong began taxing the gambling dens and paying off the authorities, a rival, jealously eyeing its lucrative franchise, co-opted a local reformist group to help eliminate it. Pretty soon Chinese were slaughtering one another in the streets, inaugurating a succession of wars that raged for the next thirty years. Scott D. Seligman’s account roars through three decades of turmoil, with characters ranging from gangsters and drug lords to reformers and do-gooders to judges, prosecutors, cops, and pols of every stripe and color. A true story set in Prohibition-era Manhattan a generation after Gangs of New York, but fought on the very same turf.
|Author||: Jeffrey Scott McIllwain|
More than a century ago, organized criminals were intrinsically involved with the political, social, and economic life of the Chinese American community. In the face of virulent racism and substantial linguistic and cultural differences, they also integrated themselves successfully into the extensive underworlds and corrupt urban politics of the Progressive Era United States. The process of organizing crime in Chinese American communities can be attributed in part to the larger politics that created opportunities for professional criminals. For example, the illegal traffic in women, laborers, and opium was an unintended consequence of "yellow peril" laws meant to provide social control over Chinese Americans. Despite this hostile climate, Chinese professional criminals were able to form extensive multiethnic social networks and purchase protection and some semblance of entrepreneurial equality from corrupt politicians, police officers, and bureaucrats. While other Chinese Americans worked diligently to remove racist laws and regulations, Chinatown gangsters saw opportunity for profit and power at the expense of their own community. Academics, the media, and the government have claimed that Chinese organized crime is a new and emerging threat to the United States. Focusing on events and personalities, and drawing on intensive archival research in newspapers, police and court documents, district attorney papers, and municipal reports, as well as from contemporary histories and sociological treatments, this study tests that claim against the historical record.
|Author||: Philippa Gates|
|Editor||: Rutgers University Press|
Pt. 1. Hollywood's Chinese America -- Introduction -- Yellow peril, protest, and an orientalist gaze: Hollywood's constructions of Chinese/Americans -- Pt. 2. Chinatown crime -- Imperilled imperialism: Tong wars, slave girls, and opium dens -- The whitening of Chinatown: action cops and upstanding criminals -- Pt. 3. Chinatown melodrama -- The perils of proximity: white downfall in the Chinatown melodrama -- Tainted blood: white fears of yellow miscegenation -- Pt. 4. Chinese American assimilation -- Assimilation and tourism: Chinese American citizens and Chinatown rebranded -- Assimilating heroism: the Chinese American as American action hero -- Epilogue
|Author||: James M. O'Kane|
|Editor||: Transaction Publishers|
Ethnic organized crime is a phenomenon that has been largely ignored by social scientists and historians. "The Crooked Ladder" represents a groundbreaking attempt to describe how some members of ethnic minorities have utilized organized crime as one vehicle of upward mobility, advancing from lower-class status to middle-class power and respectability.
|Author||: Bruce Hall|
|Editor||: Simon and Schuster|
A fourth-generation Chinese American man revisits his heritage, much of which is tied to New York's Chinatown, a place where his grandfather was a beloved bookie.
|Author||: Pyong Gap Min|
|Editor||: Pine Forge Press|
"Compared to many existing texts on this subject, which tend to take a rather historical approach, this book focuses on more contemporary Asian experiences. Thus, Min has provided a new tool for those of use who have looked for adequate material to teach current Asian American trends in advanced undergraduate courses in the sociology of race as well as in ethnic studies. Encompassing a variety of perspectives from prominent scholars makes this book a valuable device to examine the less visible aspects of Asian Americans' lives. Students and educators alike would certainly benefit from diligent study of this text." --TEACHING SOCIOLOGY, reviewed October 2006 by Etsuko Maruoka, SUNY-Stony BrookOffering a broad overview of the Asian American experience, Asian Americans provides an accessible resource for all students interested in the expanding and important Asian American population. While historical information is provided for each group, the main focus is on the variables and issues that impact Asian American life today. The scholars who author the chapters look at topics such as labor force participation and economic status, educational achievements, intermarriage, intergroup relations, and settlement patterns. Photo essays help to enhance the presentations.Key Features:Covers the Asian American population as a whole as well as individual ethnic groups, i.e. Korean Americans, Indian Americans, etc. Covers theories as well as providing sociological data to illustrate issues for Asian Americans as a whole and as individual groups. Visual essays on the following topics provide powerful illustrations of the text content. Filipino Americans Japanese Americans Korean Americans Chinese Americans South Asian Americans Southeast Asian Americans Economic Adaptation Second Generation Experiences Updated to not only include information derived from 2000 Census data, but also has a focus on the second generation experience.
|Author||: Anna Pegler-Gordon|
|Editor||: UNC Press Books|
The immigration station at New York's Ellis Island opened in 1892 and remained the largest U.S. port for immigrant entry until World War I. In popular memory, Ellis Island is typically seen as a gateway for Europeans seeking to join the "great American melting pot." But as this fresh examination of Ellis Island's history reveals, it was also a major site of immigrant detention and exclusion, especially for Chinese, Japanese, and other Asian travelers and maritime laborers who reached New York City from Europe, the Americas and the Caribbean, and even within the United States. And from 1924 to 1954, the station functioned as a detention camp and deportation center for a range of people deemed undesirable. Anna Pegler-Gordon draws on immigrants' oral histories and memoirs, government archives, newspapers, and other sources to reorient the history of migration and exclusion in the United States. In chronicling the circumstances of those who passed through or were detained at Ellis Island, she shows that Asian exclusion was both larger in scope and more limited in force than has been previously recognized.
|Author||: C. Y. Lee|
Seventeen-year-old Chinese girl disguises herself as a boy and accompanies her countrymen who ship out from Canton to the gold fields of California in 1850.
|Author||: Huping Ling,Allan W. Austin|
With overview essays and more than 400 A-Z entries, this exhaustive encyclopedia documents the history of Asians in America from earliest contact to the present day. Organized topically by group, with an in-depth overview essay on each group, the encyclopedia examines the myriad ethnic groups and histories that make up the Asian American population in the United States. "Asian American History and Culture" covers the political, social, and cultural history of immigrants from East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Pacific Islands, and their descendants, as well as the social and cultural issues faced by Asian American communities, families, and individuals in contemporary society. In addition to entries on various groups and cultures, the encyclopedia also includes articles on general topics such as parenting and child rearing, assimilation and acculturation, business, education, and literature. More than 100 images round out the set.
|Author||: Robert Chao Romero|
|Editor||: University of Arizona Press|
An estimated 60,000 Chinese entered Mexico during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, constituting Mexico's second-largest foreign ethnic community at the time. The Chinese in Mexico provides a social history of Chinese immigration to and settlement in Mexico in the context of the global Chinese diaspora of the era. Robert Romero argues that Chinese immigrants turned to Mexico as a new land of economic opportunity after the passage of the U.S. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. As a consequence of this legislation, Romero claims, Chinese immigrants journeyed to Mexico in order to gain illicit entry into the United States and in search of employment opportunities within Mexico's developing economy. Romero details the development, after 1882, of the "Chinese transnational commercial orbit," a network encompassing China, Latin America, Canada, and the Caribbean, shaped and traveled by entrepreneurial Chinese pursuing commercial opportunities in human smuggling, labor contracting, wholesale merchandising, and small-scale trade. Romero's study is based on a wide array of Mexican and U.S. archival sources. It draws from such quantitative and qualitative sources as oral histories, census records, consular reports, INS interviews, and legal documents. Two sources, used for the first time in this kind of study, provide a comprehensive sociological and historical window into the lives of Chinese immigrants in Mexico during these years: the Chinese Exclusion Act case files of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service and the 1930 Mexican municipal census manuscripts. From these documents, Romero crafts a vividly personal and compelling story of individual lives caught in an extensive network of early transnationalism.
|Author||: George W. Knox,Gregg Etter,Carter F. Smith|
|Editor||: Taylor & Francis|
In Gangs and Organized Crime, George W. Knox, Gregg W. Etter, and Carter F. Smith offer an informed and carefully investigated examination of gangs and organized crime groups, covering street gangs, prison gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, and organized crime groups from every continent. The authors have spent decades investigating gangs as well as researching their history and activities, and this dual professional-academic perspective informs their analysis of gangs and crime groups. They take a multidisciplinary approach that combines criminal justice, public policy and administration, law, organizational behavior, sociology, psychology, and urban planning perspectives to provide insight into the actions and interactions of a variety of groups and their members. This textbook is ideal for criminal justice and sociology courses on gangs as well as related course topics like gang behavior, gang crime and the inner city, organized crime families, and transnational criminal groups. Gangs and Organized Crime is also an excellent addition to the professional’s reference library or primer for the general reader. More information is available at the supporting website – www.gangsandorganizedcrime.com
|Author||: Philippa Gates|
|Editor||: Rutgers University Press|
Criminalization/Assimilation traces how Classical Hollywood films constructed America’s image of Chinese Americans from their criminalization as unwanted immigrants to their eventual acceptance when assimilated citizens, exploiting both America’s yellow peril fears about Chinese immigration and its fascination with Chinatowns. Philippa Gates examines Hollywood’s responses to social issues in Chinatown communities, primarily immigration, racism, drug trafficking, and prostitution, as well as the impact of industry factors including the Production Code and star system on the treatment of those subjects. Looking at over 200 films, Gates reveals the variety of racial representations within American film in the first half of the twentieth century and brings to light not only lost and forgotten films but also the contributions of Asian American actors whose presence onscreen offered important alternatives to Hollywood’s yellowface fabrications of Chinese identity and a resistance to Hollywood’s Orientalist narratives.
|Author||: Ko-lin Chin|
|Editor||: Oxford University Press on Demand|
In Chinatown Gangs, Ko-lin Chin penetrates a closed society and presents a rare portrait of the underworld of New York City's Chinatown. Based on first-hand accounts from gang members, gang victims, community leaders, and law enforcement authorities, this pioneering study reveals the pervasiveness, the muscle, the longevity, and the institutionalization of Chinatown gangs. Chin reveals the fear gangs instill in the Chinese community. At the same time, he shows how the economic viability of the community is sapped, and how gangs encourage lawlessness, making a mockery of law enforcement agencies. Ko-lin Chin makes clear that gang crime is inexorably linked to Chinatown's political economy and social history. He shows how gangs are formed to become "equalizers" within a social environment where individual and group conflicts, whether social, political, or economic, are unlikely to be solved in American courts. Moreover, Chin argues that Chinatown's informal economy provides yet another opportunity for street gangs to become "providers" or "protectors" of illegal services. These gangs, therefore, are the pathological manifestation of a closed community, one whose problems are not easily seen--and less easily understood--by outsiders. Chin's concrete data on gang characteristics, activities, methods of operation and violence make him uniquely qualified to propose ways to restrain gang violence, and Chinatown Gangs closes with his specific policy suggestions. It is the definitive study of gangs in an American Chinatown.
|Author||: Fredy González|
|Editor||: Univ of California Press|
Cover -- Contents -- List of Illustrations -- Acknowledgments -- Note on Language and Usage -- Introduction -- 1. Mexico for the Mexicans, China for the Chinese: Political Upheaval and the Anti-Chinese Campaigns in Postrevolutionary Sonora and Sinaloa -- 2. Those Who Remained and Those Who Returned: Resistance, Migration, and Diplomacy during the Anti-Chinese Campaigns -- 3. We Won't Be Bullied Anymore: The Chinese Community in Mexico during the Second World War -- 4. The Golden Age of Chinese Mexicans: Anti-Communist Activism under Ambassador Feng-Shan Ho, 1958-1964 -- 5. The Cold War Comes to Chinatown: Chinese Mexicans Caught between Beijing and Taipei, 1955-1971 -- 6. A New China, a New Community -- Conclusion -- Notes -- Bibliography -- Index -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- J -- K -- L -- M -- N -- O -- P -- Q -- R -- S -- T -- U -- V -- W -- X -- Y -- Z
|Author||: Scott D. Seligman|
|Editor||: U of Nebraska Press|
The Great Kosher Meat War of 1902 recounts the inspiring story of immigrant women and the dramatic and effective mass consumer action they launched in turn-of-the-century New York City.
|Author||: Peter Robson,Ferdinando Spina|
|Editor||: Rowman & Littlefield|
Vigilante Justice in Society and Popular Culture offers a transnational investigation of vigilantism and its context across a range of eleven different jurisdictions. Focusing on vigilante justice in popular culture, this unique collection enriches the debate by adding the opportunity for comparison which has been lacking in scholarly literature.